APA 6th for footnotes

This type of footnotes is commonly used by historians.

A number is placed in the text which refers to the footnote at the bottom of the page. The footnote also contains information about the author and the year of publication. The complete reference list is placed at the end of the text in alphabetical order.

Anonymous newspaper article (no author)

In the footnote

If there is no author of the newspaper article, name the newspaper as responsible
 

Farsunds Avis 1962, 09.07.

In the reference list

Newspaper. (year, date). Title.


Farsunds Avis. (1962, 09.07). Sæløer og Korshavn ligger som en protest mot avfolkningstendensen i sørlandsk skjærgård.

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Article from online newspaper

In the footnote

Author year

Leer-Salvesen 2008

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Newspaper name in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Leer-Salvesen, P. (2008). Sinn lønn verd? Fædrelandsvennen. Hentet fra http://www.fvn.no/mening/debatt/article621538.ece?redir=true

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Author with several publications the same year

In the footnote

If an author has several publications the same year, separate them with a small letter attached to the year

 
1. Repstad 2007a: 59
2. Repstad 2007b: 15

In the reference list

Author. (year+letter). Title in italics. City: Publisher.


Repstad, P. (2007a). Hva er sosiologi. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Repstad, P. (2007b). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Kvalitative metoder i samfunnsfag. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Blog entry

In the footnote

Author year
 
Kleivset 2010

In the reference list

Author. (Date). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]

Kleivset, B. (2010, 27. january). Noen 2010-nyheter. Retrieved from: http://birgittekleivset.blogspot.com/2010/12/noen-2010-nyheter.html

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Book with one author

In the footnote

Author year: page

Sødal 2008: 24

 

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. City: Forlag.

Sødal, T. (2008). Til skræk og exempel: Trolldom, dødsstraff og kriminalitet på Agder ca. 1550-1700. Kristiansand: Portal.

 

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Book with three-five authors

In the footnote

The first time all authors are mentioned. Next time only the first author and [et. al]

1. Fasting, Doksheim and Vatnøy 2011: 11
2. Fasting [et al.] 2011: 32

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.


Fasting, M., Doksheim, M., & Vatnøy, E. (2011). Den norske velferden. Oslo: Civita.

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Book with two authors

In the footnote

Both authors are mentioned every time. year: page
 
Nielsen and Thon 2008: 43

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italcs. City: Publisher.


Nielsen, M.-B. Ohman, & Thon, J. (2008). Wergelandenes kristiansand: Byguide. Kristiansand: Wergelandselskapet.

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Chapter in edited book

In the footnote

Author and year: page
 
Haakedal 2010: 48

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. In Books editor (Ed.), The Books title and subtitle in italics.(pages). City: Publisher.


Haakedal, E. (2010). Hva er en disippel?: Multimodalitet i elevarbeidsbøker. In E. S. Tønnessen (Ed.), Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis (p. 171-191). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Compendium

In the footnote

If the reference to the original text is given, use this. If not, give reference to the compendium

Nedrelid and Kofoed u.å.

In the reference list

Author (year) Title. In title of compendium in italics. City: university/college.


Nedrelid, T. E., & Kofoed, S. d. L. (s.a.). Utnytt søkemotorene. In Kompendium: Informasjonskompetansedelen av NO 120. Kristiansand: Universitetet i Agder.

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Conference paper

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Bråstad 2008:98

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Paper presented at the [conference name], Place of conference.


Bråstad, K. J. (2008). Agder - del av en skagerrak-kattegat-region? Paper presented at the Agderseminar, Kristiansand.

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Conference paper - abstract found online

In the footnote

Author year
 
Rødland 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Paper presented at the [conference name], Place. Abstract retrieved from [URL]


Rødland, I. (2010). Fagreferenten - arbeidsoppgaver og forventninger. Paper presented at the Fagreferentkonferanse 2010, Stavanger. Abstract retrieved from http://www.uis.no/article.php?articleID=23134&categoryID=6006 

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Conversation

In the footnote

Name the person you have talked to. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing them correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Doctoral dissertation

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Dørum 2004: 32

In the reference list

Author. (year) Title in italics. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty, University, City.


Dørum, K. (2004). Romerike og riksintegreringen: Integreringen av romerike i det norske rikskongedømmet i perioden ca. 1000-1350. Ph.D. thesis. Det humanistiske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo.

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Doctoral dissertation online

In the footnote

Author and year
 
Hovdelien 2011

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics (Ph.D. thesis). Retrieved from [URL].


Hovdelien, O. (2011). Den multikulturelle skolen - hva mener rektorene? Grunnskolerektorer, skolens verdiforankring og religions- og livssynsundervisningen (Ph.D. thesis). Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_8587 

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E-book

In the footnote

Author and year
 

Stansell 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title and subtitle in italics. Retrieved from [URL] / DOI:


Stansell, C. (2010). The feminist promise: 1792 to the present doi:http://site.ebrary.com/lib/agder/docDetail.action?docID=10386235

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E-mail

In the footnote

Name the person cited and if necessary working place. Give information as to why you are citing this person, that this is an e-mail, and the date of the e-mail. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing them correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Edited book

In the footnote

Editor year: page

Tønnessen 2010: 99

In the reference list

Editor (Ed.). (year). Title and subtitle in italics. City: Publisher.


Tønnessen, E. S. (Ed.). (2010). Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Encyclopedia

In the footnote

Author, year: page number  

Menter 2015: 51

If an author is not specified, put the title of the headword/entry in the author position.

 

In the reference list

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In (ed.), name of encyclopedia in italics. Retrieved from URL

Menter, I. (2015). Teacher Education. In J. D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences   (2 ed.). Retrieved from:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080970868920853

If an encyclopedia does not have an editor, you do not have to include this in your reference.

Information literacy. (2017). in Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy 

If you do not have an URL, replace this with place published: publisher

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Journal article with one author

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Fredwall 2004: 235

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Journal title in italicsvolume(issue), pages. doi:

Mersland, R.(2011). The impact of international influence on microbanks' performance: A global survey. International Business Review, 20(2), 163-176. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2010.07.006

Larsen, A. I. (2009). Krigen på Sri Lanka og stormaktsinteresser i det indiske hav. Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, 50(4), 551-566. Retrieved from http://www.idunn.no/ts/tfs/2009/04/art07

Fredwall, T. E. (2004). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Om Unn i Tarjei Vesaas' roman Is-slottet. Edda, 91(3), 218-237.

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Journal article with six or seven authors

In the footnote

Only the first author is mentioned + et al. and year: page

Pfennig et al. 2016: 284

In the reference list

All authors are listed. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Pfennig, A., Ritter, P. S., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., Bauer, M., Wittchen, H. U., & Beesdo-Baum, K. (2016). Symptom characteristics of depressive episodes prior to the onset of mania or hypomania. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 133(3), 196-204. doi: 10.1111/acps.12469

Jang, B.-S., Kallåk, B., Lee, C.-H., Ko, D.-E., Suh, Y.-S., & Yang, Y.-S. (2010). A process-centric ship design management framework. Official Journal of the Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean Engineers, 15(1), 23-33. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00773-009-0071-4

 

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Journal article with three-five authors

In the footnote

All authors are mentioned the first time. After this only the first one flollowed by et al.

1. Hansen, Ekholm, and Kjøller 2008:207
2. Hansen et al. 2008: 208

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Hansen, A. R., Ekholm, O., & Kjøller, M. (2008). Health behaviour among non-western immigrants with danish citizenship. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(2), 205-210. doi: 10.1177/1403494807085065

Juha, T. M., Mirva, P., & Petri, M. T. P. (2010). Genre-deviating artist entry: the role of authenticity and fuzziness. Management Decision, 48(9), 1355-1364. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/761429551?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=43239

 

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Journal article with two authors

In the footnote

Both authors are mentioned every time + year: page
 
Sointu and Woodhead 2008: 262

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Sointu, E., & Woodhead, L. (2008). Spirituality, gender, and expressive selfhood. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(2), 259-276. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00406.x

Hippe, J. M., & Steen, S. I. (2015). Før tariffoppgjøret 2016: Adgangen til å opprette (brede) felles tjenestepensjonsordninger. Arbeidsrett, 9(2), 193-211. retrieved from  http://www.idunn.no/ts/arbeid/2015/02/foer_tariffoppgjoeret_2016_adgangen_til_aa_opprette_brede_f

 

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Norwegian Laws and regulations

In the footnote

Law/regulation short title year: paragraph  

The copyright act 1961: §4

 

In the reference list

Law/regulation short title. (Year). The full name of the law/regulation with the date of adoption and number in italics. Retrieved from URL


The copyright act. (1961). Act relating to copyright in literary, scientific and artistic works, etc. 12 of May 1961 nr 2. Retrieved from: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1961-05-12-2 

Remove the URL if you are referencing the printed edition of the Norwegian Laws.

Always reference the original law unless you refer to a particular change in the law. If you are referencing a particular change, you have to use the date for the change instead of the date of the original law.

 

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Lecture

In the footnote

Give the lecturers name, title and subject of the lecture. Make sure you ask the lecturer if you may cite him/her and if you are citing him/her correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Master´s thesis

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Daland 2010:68

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Publisher: City.
 
Daland, L. H. (2010). Livskraften ebber ut: En undersøkelse av befolkningsendringen i utvalgte uthavnssamfunn mellom Lindesnes og Lista 1900-1970. L.H. Daland, Kristiansand.

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Master´s thesis online

In the footnote

Author year
 
Fjalsett 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Fjalsett, G. K. (2010). Fra forfølgelse til statsreligion: Aspekter ved forholdet mellom stat og kirke på 300 tallet i bysants. Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_13517 

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Multi-volume work

In the footnote

Author/Editor year
 
Helle 1994-1998

In the reference list

Editor (Ed.). (years). Title in italics (Volume) City: Publisher.


Helle, K. (Ed.). (1994-1998). Aschehougs norgeshistorie (Vol. 1-12). Oslo: Aschehoug.

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Music CD pamphlet

In the footnote

Artist year  

Birkeland and Trædal 2004

In the reference list

Artist. (Year). Title in the cd pamphlet. Title of CD in italics [CD pamphlet]. Place published: Publisher.

Birkeland, M. and Trædal, T. (2004). Dansk musikk for cello og klaver. Dansk cellomusikk [CD pamphlet]. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder.

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Music recording (LP/CD)

In the footnote

Writer copyright date: track number

Bernard & Smith 1934/2010: 7

If the copyright date and recording date are different, use both dates in the text citation.

In the reference list

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album in italics   [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Bernard, F. & Smith, R. B. (1934). Winter wonderland [Recorded by Kurt Nilsen]. On Have yourself a merry little Christmas   [CD]. Oslo: Playroom Music. (2010).

 

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Newspaper article

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Inntjore 2005: 4

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title. Newspaper title in italics, pages.


Inntjore, H. (2005, 23.08). Kan Agder likestilles?, Fædrelandsvennen, p. 4.

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Online image

In the footnote

Title of the image, year

Library 2011

In the reference list

Image title [Image]. (year) Retrieved from URL.


Library [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.colourbox.com

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Online video

In the footnote

Video title year
 

FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars 2010

In the reference list

Video title in italics (year) [video]. Retrieved from [URL]


FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars (2010) [Video]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/7WD_QMWba-A

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DVD/Blu-ray/VHS

In the footnote

Director and Producer year

Fonda & Lumet 2005

In the reference list

Director & Producer (Roles). (year). Title in italics [Material type]. Place published: publisher.


Fonda, H. (Producer), & Lumet, S. (Director). (1957). 12 angry men [DVD]. USA: Orion-Nova Productions.

 

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Website

In the footnote

Author year  

Melteig 2016

When a website has no personal author, please include the name of the responsible organization/institution. If there is no responsible organization/institution, please use the title of the page as the substitute for the author/organization.

The Economist Intelligence Unit 2016

In the reference list

Author. (Year). Title in italics. Retrieved from URL
 
Melteig, E. (2016). Cod's immune system is not special any more. Retrieved from https://titan.uio.no/node/1916

 

Organization/institution. (Year). Title in italics. Retrieved from URL

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2016). Budget agreement avoids government collapse. Retrieved from   http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=134890997&Country=Norway&topic=Politics&subtopic=Forecast&subsubtopic=Political+stability&u=1&pid=1015043085&oid=1015043085&uid=1

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Brochures and pamphlets

In the footnote

The responsible institution/organisation year

Norwegian Environment Agency 2013

In the reference list

The responsible institution/organisation. (year). Title in italics [Brochure]. Place published: Publisher.

 

Norwegian Environment Agency. (2013). Right to roam [Brochure]. Trondheim: Norwegian Environment Agency.

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Journal article with eight or more authors

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Zhang 2013: 3186

In the reference list

The first six authors, ... the last author. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Zhang, W., Wang, G., Liu, Y., Zhao, X., Zou, D., Zhu, C., . . . Zreiqat, H. (2013). The synergistic effect of hierarchical micro/nano-topography and bioactive ions for enhanced osseointegration. Biomaterials, 34(13), 3184-3195. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.008

Kim, J., Cho, M., Hong, J. P., Bae, J., Cho, S. J., Hahm, B., . . . Chang, S. M. (2015). Gender differences in depressive symptom profile: Results from nationwide general population surveys in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 30(11), 1659-1666. Hentet fra https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630484/

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Note: If information on volume is missing exclude this from the reference.

 

 

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White papers (Norwegian Government)

In the footnote

Ministry year: page number  

Ministry of Finance 2017: 10

In the reference list

Ministry. (Year). Title of white paper in italics. (Meld. St. nr. session, dvs. year). Retrieved from URL 

Ministry of Finance. (2017). Long-term perspectives on the Norwegian Economy 2017 - a summary of main points. (Meld. St. 29. 2016 - 2017) Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/meld.-st.-29-20162017/id2546674/sec1

If you do not have an URL, replace this with place published: publisher

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Sheet music

In the footnote

Composer year

Beethoven 2002

In the reference list

Composer. (Year). Title in italics [Material type]. Place published: publisher

Beethoven, L. (Composer). (2002). Fur Elise [Sheet music]. New York: Random House. (Original work published 1810).

If you are using a reprint of an old score include original publication date.

If the sheet music was found online add URL  instead of Place Published/Publisher.

In EndNote

Add as "Audiovisuelt materialet"

Fill in the fields Author, Year,  Series Title, Type,  Place Published and Publisher.

Add original publication date and composer manually.

If the sheet music was found online add URL manually instead of Place Published/Publisher.

To add additional information manually convert your document into plain text.

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Propositions to the government (Norway)

In the footnote

Ministry year: page number  

Ministry of Defence 2017: 5

In the reference list

Ministry. (Year).Title of proposition in italics. (Proposition number). Retrieved from URL 

Ministry of Defence. (2017). Invisteringar i forsvaret og andre saker.(Prop. 123 S. 2016-2017) Retrieved from: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/prop.-123-s-20162017/id2549911/

If you do not have an URL, replace this with place published: publisher

In EndNote

Add as "Government documents"

Fill in the fields Author (write the name of the ministry), Year, Title, Report number and URL, or Place published /publisher.

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Podcast/Radio

In the footnote

Producer year

Chivvis 2014

List the primary contributors in the author position.

In the reference list

Producer (Roles). (Year). Title in italics [Material type]. Retrieved from URL

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution. 

Chivvis, D. (Producer). (2014). Serial [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-one

To cite an episode of a podcast or radio series, use the same format as chapter in a book, but list the scriptwriter and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Koenig, S. (Writer). (2014). The Alibi [Podcast episode]. In S. Koenig, J. Snyder & Chivvis, D. (producers), Serial . Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-one/1/the-alibi

In EndNote

 

 

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Circulars (Norwegian Government)

In the footnote

Ministry year: page number  

Ministry of Children and Equality 2015: 4

In the reference list

Ministry. (Year). Title of proposition in italics. (Circular number). Retrieved from URL 

Ministry of Children and Equality. (2015). Guidelines for processing child welfare cases where children have ties to other countries. (Q-42/2015). Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/q-422015-guidelines-for-processing-child-welfare-cases-where-children-have-ties-to-other-countries/id2467847/

If you do not have an URL, replace this with place published: publisher

In EndNote

Add as "Government documents"

Fill in the fields Author (write the name of the ministry), Year, Title, Report number and URL, or Place published /publisher.

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Personal Communication (lecture notes, emails etc)

In the footnote

Specify the name of the person(s) involved, why the source is relevant and give as precise a date as possible. Get the approval to cite the person(s) involved and make sure you quote correctly.

In the reference list

These sources are not included in the reference list.

Private letters, e-mails, conversations, phone calls and other type of communication which is irretrievable for others is referred to as personal communication and is not included in the reference list. This also includes notes and handouts that are not available for others.


In EndNote

Can be added as "Personal communication" in order to save the information.

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Online Report

In the footnote

Author year: page number

Seeberg 2011: 2

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. (Report number). Retrieved from URL

Seeberg, M. L. (2011). Kunnskapsstatus (1990-2010): Forskning om etnisk diskriminering av barn og unge (NOVA rapport 8/2011). Retrieved from http://www.nova.no/asset/4573/1/4573_1.pdf

In EndNote

Add as "Government documents".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Report number and URL

 

 

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NOU

In the footnote

NOU:year: page number

NOU 2010:6: 73 

In the reference list

NOU year:number. (Year). Title in italics. Retrieved from URL

NOU 2010:6. (2010). Pensjonslovene og folketrygdreformen. Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/nou-2010-6/id603907/

If you do not have an URL, replace this with place published: publisher

In EndNote

Add as "Government document".

Fill in the fields Author (Enter the name of NOU with commas at the end to prevent abbreviations) Year, Title, and URL or Place published/Publisher.

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Curriculum/Framework

In the footnote

Ministry/organisation year: page numbers

Ministry of education and research 2011: 5

In the reference list

Ministry/Organisation, (The year the plan applies from). Title in itlaics. Retrieved from URL

Ministry of education and research. (2011). Rammeplan for barnehagens innhold og oppgaver. Retrieved from http://www.udir.no/laring-og-trivsel/rammeplan/barnehagens-innhold/rammeplan-for-barnehagens-innhold-og-oppgaver/

If you have used lovdata.no to read the curriculum/framework use the box "Norwegian laws and regulations" instead.

In EndNote

Add as "Government Document"

Fill in the fields Author, Title, Year, and URL

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