APA 6th for footnotes

This type of footnotes is commonly used by historians.

A number is placed in the text which refers to the footnote at the bottom of the page. The footnote also contains information about the author and the year of publication. The complete reference list is placed at the end of the text in alphabetical order.

Anonymous newspaper article (no author)

In the footnote

If there is no author of the newspaper article, name the newspaper as responsible
 

Farsunds Avis 1962, 09.07.

In the reference list

Newspaper. (year, date). Title.


Farsunds Avis. (1962, 09.07). Sæløer og Korshavn ligger som en protest mot avfolkningstendensen i sørlandsk skjærgård.

In EndNote

Add as "Newspaper article".


Put the newspaper´s name in the Reporter field (add a comma at the end of the name to avoid invertion) Year, Title and Issue date.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Article from online newspaper

In the footnote

Author year

Leer-Salvesen 2008

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Newspaper name in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Leer-Salvesen, P. (2008). Sinn lønn verd? Fædrelandsvennen. Hentet fra http://www.fvn.no/mening/debatt/article621538.ece?redir=true

In EndNote

Add as "Electronic article".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Author with several publications the same year

In the footnote

If an author has several publications the same year, separate them with a small letter attached to the year

 
1. Repstad 2007a: 59
2. Repstad 2007b: 15

In the reference list

Author. (year+letter). Title in italics. City: Publisher.


Repstad, P. (2007a). Hva er sosiologi. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Repstad, P. (2007b). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Kvalitative metoder i samfunnsfag. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

In EndNote

Add as "book".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City and Publisher. EndNote will add the letters if necessary.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Blog entry

In the footnote

Author year
 
Kleivset 2010

In the reference list

Author. (Date). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]

Kleivset, B. (2010, 27. january). Noen 2010-nyheter. Retrieved from: http://birgittekleivset.blogspot.com/2010/12/noen-2010-nyheter.html

In EndNote

Add as "Blog".

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title of Entry, Access year, Date and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Book with one author

In the footnote

Author year: page

Sødal 2008: 24

 

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. City: Forlag.

Sødal, T. (2008). Til skræk og exempel: Trolldom, dødsstraff og kriminalitet på Agder ca. 1550-1700. Kristiansand: Portal.

 

In EndNote

Add as "Book".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City og Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Book with three-five authors

In the footnote

The first time all authors are mentioned. Next time only the first author and [et. al]

1. Fasting, Doksheim and Vatnøy 2011: 11
2. Fasting [et al.] 2011: 32

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.


Fasting, M., Doksheim, M., & Vatnøy, E. (2011). Den norske velferden. Oslo: Civita.

In EndNote

Add as "book".


Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Book with two authors

In the footnote

Both authors are mentioned every time. year: page
 
Nielsen and Thon 2008: 43

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italcs. City: Publisher.


Nielsen, M.-B. Ohman, & Thon, J. (2008). Wergelandenes kristiansand: Byguide. Kristiansand: Wergelandselskapet.

In EndNote

Add as "Book".


Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Chapter in edited book

In the footnote

Author and year: page
 
Haakedal 2010: 48

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. In Books editor (Ed.), The Books title and subtitle in italics.(pages). City: Publisher.


Haakedal, E. (2010). Hva er en disippel?: Multimodalitet i elevarbeidsbøker. In E. S. Tønnessen (Ed.), Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis (p. 171-191). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

In EndNote

Add as "Book section".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Book title, City, Publisher, Pages.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Compendium

In the footnote

If the reference to the original text is given, use this. If not, give reference to the compendium

Nedrelid and Kofoed u.å.

In the reference list

Author (year) Title. In title of compendium in italics. City: university/college.


Nedrelid, T. E., & Kofoed, S. d. L. (s.a.). Utnytt søkemotorene. In Kompendium: Informasjonskompetansedelen av NO 120. Kristiansand: Universitetet i Agder.

In EndNote

Add as "Book section".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Book title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Conference paper

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Bråstad 2008:98

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Paper presented at the [conference name], Place of conference.


Bråstad, K. J. (2008). Agder - del av en skagerrak-kattegat-region? Paper presented at the Agderseminar, Kristiansand.

In EndNote

Add as "Conference Paper".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Conference Name and Conference Location.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Conference paper - abstract found online

In the footnote

Author year
 
Rødland 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Paper presented at the [conference name], Place. Abstract retrieved from [URL]


Rødland, I. (2010). Fagreferenten - arbeidsoppgaver og forventninger. Paper presented at the Fagreferentkonferanse 2010, Stavanger. Abstract retrieved from http://www.uis.no/article.php?articleID=23134&categoryID=6006 

In EndNote

Add as "Conference Paper".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Conference Name, Conference Location og URL (Type "abstact retrieved from" before the URL)

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Conversation

In the footnote

Name the person you have talked to. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing them correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

In EndNote

Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Doctoral dissertation

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Dørum 2004: 32

In the reference list

Author. (year) Title in italics. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty, University, City.


Dørum, K. (2004). Romerike og riksintegreringen: Integreringen av romerike i det norske rikskongedømmet i perioden ca. 1000-1350. Ph.D. thesis. Det humanistiske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo.

In EndNote

Add as "Thesis".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City and University.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Doctoral dissertation online

In the footnote

Author and year
 
Hovdelien 2011

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics (Ph.D. thesis). Retrieved from [URL].


Hovdelien, O. (2011). Den multikulturelle skolen - hva mener rektorene? Grunnskolerektorer, skolens verdiforankring og religions- og livssynsundervisningen (Ph.D. thesis). Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_8587 

In EndNote

Add as "Thesis".

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Thesis type and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

E-book

In the footnote

Author and year
 

Stansell 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title and subtitle in italics. Retrieved from [URL] / DOI:


Stansell, C. (2010). The feminist promise: 1792 to the present doi:http://site.ebrary.com/lib/agder/docDetail.action?docID=10386235

In EndNote

Add as "Electronic Book".


Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title and URL / DOI

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

E-mail

In the footnote

Name the person cited and if necessary working place. Give information as to why you are citing this person, that this is an e-mail, and the date of the e-mail. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing them correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

In EndNote

Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Edited book

In the footnote

Editor year: page

Tønnessen 2010: 99

In the reference list

Editor (Ed.). (year). Title and subtitle in italics. City: Publisher.


Tønnessen, E. S. (Ed.). (2010). Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

In EndNote

Add as "Edited book".


Fill out the fields Editor, Year, Title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Encyclopedia

In the footnote

Entry and year
 
Middelalderen 1997

In the reference list

Entry/author. (year). In Editor (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia in italics. City: Publisher.


Middelalderen. (1997). In Petter Henriksen (Ed.), Store Norske Leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget.

In EndNote

Add as Encyclopedia.


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Encyclopedia Title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

From organization (no author)

In the footnote

If no author is given, name the institution/organization as responsible.

Universitetet i Agder 2010

In the reference list

Organization. (year). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Universitetet i Agder. (2010). Organisasjonen. Hentet fra http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/organisasjonen

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".


Fill out the fields Author (name of the organization with a comma at the end to avoid invertion) Year, Title and URL

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Journal article with one author

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Fredwall 2004: 235

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.

If information on volume is missing exclude this from the reference.

Fredwall, T. E. (2004). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Om Unn i Tarjei Vesaas' roman Is-slottet. Edda, 91(3), 218-237.

In EndNote

Add as "Journal article"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Journal article with six authors or more

In the footnote

Only the first author is mentioned + et al. and year: page

Smith et al. 2008:284

In the reference list

All authors are listed (year) Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.
 
Smith, D. J., Kyle, S., Forty, L., Cooper, C., Walters, J., Russell, E., & Craddock, N. (2008). Differences in depressive symptom profile between males and females. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(3), 279-284.

In EndNote

Add as "Journal article".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.
To add more than one author, press enter between them to separate them.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Journal article with three-five authors

In the footnote

All authors are mentioned the first time. After this only the first one flollowed by et al.

1. Hansen, Ekholm and Kjøller 2008:207
2. Hansen et al.:208

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.
 
Hansen, A. R., Ekholm, O., & Kjøller, M. (2008). Health behaviour among non-western immigrants with danish citizenship. Scandinavian journal of public health, 36(2), 205-210.

In EndNote

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.


To add more than one author, press enter between them to separate them.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Journal article with two authors

In the footnote

Both authors are mentioned every time + year: page
 
Woodhead og Sointu 2008: 262

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.


Sointu, E., & Woodhead, L. (2008). Spirituality, gender, and expressive selfhood. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(2), 259-276.

In EndNote

Add as "Journal article".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.
To add more than one author, press enter between them to separate them.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Laws and regulations

In the footnote

Short title of the law and year

The copyright act 1961

In the reference list

Short title of the law. (year). Full title of the law.


The copyright act. (1961). Act relating to copyright in literary, scientific and artistic works, etc.

In EndNote

Add as "Government document".

Fill out the fields Author (short title) Year, Title (full title) and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Lecture

In the footnote

Give the lecturers name, title and subject of the lecture. Make sure you ask the lecturer if you may cite him/her and if you are citing him/her correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

In EndNote

Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Master´s thesis

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Daland 2010:68

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Publisher: City.
 
Daland, L. H. (2010). Livskraften ebber ut: En undersøkelse av befolkningsendringen i utvalgte uthavnssamfunn mellom Lindesnes og Lista 1900-1970. L.H. Daland, Kristiansand.

In EndNote

Add as "Thesis".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City and University (authors name in the university field)

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Master´s thesis online

In the footnote

Author year
 
Fjalsett 2010

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Fjalsett, G. K. (2010). Fra forfølgelse til statsreligion: Aspekter ved forholdet mellom stat og kirke på 300 tallet i bysants. Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_13517 

In EndNote

Add as "Thesis".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Multi-volume work

In the footnote

Author/Editor year
 
Helle 1994-1998

In the reference list

Editor (Ed.). (years). Title in italics (Volume) City: Publisher.


Helle, K. (Ed.). (1994-1998). Aschehougs norgeshistorie (Vol. 1-12). Oslo: Aschehoug.

In EndNote

Add as "Edited Book"


Fill out the fields Editor, Year, Title, Volume, Publisher and City.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Music CD pamphlet

In the footnote

Artist year
 
Birkeland and Trædal 2004

In the reference list

Artist. (year). Title in the cd pamphlet. Title of CD in italics [CD pamphlet]. City: Publisher.


Birkeland, M., og Trædal, T. (2004). Dansk musikk for cello og klaver. Dansk cellomusikk [CD pamphlet]. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder.

In EndNote

Add as "Audiovisual Material".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher and Type.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Music-CD

In the footnote

Artist year
 
Kristensen 2005

In the reference list

Artist. (year). Title in italics [medium]. City: Publisher.


Kristensen, R. (2005). Shimmering minor [CD]. Kristiansand: Ponca Jazz Records.

In EndNote

Add as "Audiovisual Material".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher and Type.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Newspaper article

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Inntjore 2005: 4

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title. Newspaper title in italics, pages.


Inntjore, H. (2005, 23.08). Kan Agder likestilles?, Fædrelandsvennen, p. 4.

In EndNote

Add as "Newspaper article".


Fill out the fields Reporter, Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages og Issue date.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Online encyclopedia

In the footnote

Author and year
 

Tjønneland  2009

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title of entry in italics. Encyclopedia name. Retrieved from  [URL]


Tjønneland, E. (2009). Etikk. Store Norske Leksikon. Retrieved from http://snl.no/etikk

In EndNote

Add as "Web Page".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Series Title and URL

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Online encyclopedia entry without author

In the footnote

If no author is given, place the entry in the place of the author.


Entry and year

Informasjonskompetanse 2011

In the reference list

Entry in italics. (year). Encyclopedia. Retrieved from  [URL]


Informasjonskompetanse (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informasjonskompetanse

In EndNote

Add as "Web Page".


Fill out the fields Year, Title, Series Title and URL

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Online image

In the footnote

Title of the image, year

Library 2011

In the reference list

Image title [Image]. (year) Retrieved from URL.


Library [Image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.colourbox.com

In EndNote

Add as "Webpage".


Fill out the fields Year, Title (type "image" in square brackets after the title) and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Online statistics

In the footnote

Statistics producer year

Statistisk Sentralbyrå 2011

In the reference list

Statistics producer. (Year). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]

Statistisk Sentralbyrå. (2011). Students in tertiary education in Norway and Norwegian students abroad, by gender, age and type of college. 1 October 2010. Absolute figures and per cent. Retrieved from http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/02/40/utuvh_en/tab-2011-05-20-02-en.html

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".


Fill out the fields Author (comma after Statistics Norway to avoid invertion), Year, Title and URL

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Online video

In the footnote

Video title year
 

FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars 2010

In the reference list

Video title in italics (year) [video]. Retrieved from [URL]


FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars (2010) [Video]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/7WD_QMWba-A

In EndNote

Add as "Webpage".


Fill out the fields Year, Title [video] and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Report found online

In the footnote

Author year
 
Seeberg 2011

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics  (Report No.). Retrieved from [URL]


Seeberg, M. L. (2011). Kunnskapsstatus (1990-2010): Forskning om etnisk diskriminering av barn og unge (NOVA rapport 8/2011). Retrieved from http://www.nova.no/asset/4573/1/4573_1.pdf

 

In EndNote

Add as "Electronic book".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Secondary title (serial title), Publisher, Volume and URL.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Statistics

In the footnote

Statistics producer year: page


Statististics Norway 2005: 17

In the reference list

Statistics producer. (Year). Title in italics. In book title. City: Publisher.


Statistics Norway. (2005). Fishermen, by fishing as a source of livelihood. 1983-2003.In Fishery Statistics 2002-2003. Oslo: Statistics Norway.

In EndNote

Add as "Book Section".


Fill out the fields Author (comma after Statistics Norway to avoid invertion), Year, Title, Book title, City and Publisher.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Video, DVD

In the footnote

Director and producer year
 
Lambert and Harrison 2005

In the reference list

Director and producer. (year) Title in italics [type of medium]. City: Publisher.


Lambert, T., & Harrison, C. (Directors and producers). (2005). Guns, germs and steel [DVD]. [s.l.]:National Geographic.


The publishing place is missing from the information and is replaced by s.l. (sine loco)

In EndNote

Add as "Film or broadcast".


Fill out the fields Director, Year released, Title, Country, Distributor and Medium.

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Website

In the footnote

Author year
 
Hidle 2011

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Retrieved [date] from URL



Hidle, K-M. W. (2011). William og kate - et uskyldig eventyr? Retrieved from http://www.forskning.no/artikler/2011/mai/287215

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".



Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, and URL

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Brochures and pamphlets

In the footnote

The responsible institution/organisation year

Norwegian Environment Agency 2013

In the reference list

The responsible institution/organisation. (year). Title in italics [Brochure]. Place published: Publisher.

 

Norwegian Environment Agency. (2013). Right to roam [Brochure]. Trondheim: Norwegian Environment Agency.

In EndNote

Add as "Audiovisual material"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Series title, Type, Place published og Publisher.

 

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×

Journal article with eight or more authors

In the footnote

Author year: page
 
Zhang 2013: 3186

In the reference list

The first six authors, ... the last author. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Zhang, W., Wang, G., Liu, Y., Zhao, X., Zou, D., Zhu, C., . . . Zreiqat, H. (2013). The synergistic effect of hierarchical micro/nano-topography and bioactive ions for enhanced osseointegration. Biomaterials, 34(13), 3184-3195. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.008

Kim, J., Cho, M., Hong, J. P., Bae, J., Cho, S. J., Hahm, B., . . . Chang, S. M. (2015). Gender differences in depressive symptom profile: Results from nationwide general population surveys in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 30(11), 1659-1666. Hentet fra https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630484/

Note: If information on DOI or URL is missing exclude this form the reference.

Note: If information on volume is missing exclude this from the reference.

 

 

In EndNote

Article from printed journal: add as "Journal article"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages, doi

Article from online journal: add as "Electronic article"

 

Artikkel hentet fra internett legges inn som "Electronic article"

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages, doi or URL.

 

Psst! Our Q&A answers most questions
Sist oppdatert: 4/26/2013
×