APA 6th

APA is commonly used in the subjects nutrition, public health, science, arts, music, mathematics education, mathematics, social work, education, mental health, language, political science, nursing, sociology of religion, economics, athletics, literature and media.

APA is an abbreviation for the American Psychological Association. This reference style uses parenthesis in the text with the author's last name and the year of publication. A complete reference list is placed at the end of the text. The references in the list are in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names and should contain all necessary bibliographical data.

Kildekompasset is mainly based on  "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Assosiation (6. utg.)"

Anonymous newspaperarticle

In the text

If there is no author of the newspaper article, mention the newspaper as responsible. (Farsunds Avis, 1962, 09.07.)

In the reference list

Newspaper. (year, date). Title.

Farsunds Avis. (1962, 09.07). Sæløer og Korshavn ligger som en protest mot avfolkningstendensen i sørlandsk skjærgård.

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Add as "Newspaper article".

Put the newspaper´s name in the Reporter field (add a comma at the end of the name to avoid invertion) Year, Title and Issue date.

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Author with several publications same year

In the text

If an author has several publications the same year, separate them with a small letter attached to the year.(a b) (Repstad, 2007a, p. 43) (Repstad 2007b p. 78)

In the reference list

Author. (year+letter). Title in italics. City: Publisher.

Repstad, P. (2007a). Hva er sosiologi. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Repstad, P. (2007b). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Kvalitative metoder i samfunnsfag. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Add as "book".

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City and Publisher. EndNote will add the letters if necessary.

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Blog entry

In the text

Author, year (Kleivset, 2010)

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title in italics. [Blog]. Retrieved from [URL]

Kleivset, B. (2010, 27.01) Noen 2010-nyheter. [Blog]. Retrieved from http://birgittekleivset.blogspot.com/2010/12/noen-2010-nyheter.html

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title of entry, Date, Destription and URL.

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Book with editor

In the text

Editor, year, page (Tønnessen, 2010, p. 52)

In the reference list

Editor. (Ed.). (year). Title + subtitle in italics. City: Publisher.

Tønnessen, E. S. (Ed.). (2010). Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Add as "Edited book".

Fill out the fields Editor, Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Book with one author

In the text

Author, publishing year, page. (Sødal, 2008, p. 53)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.

Sødal, T. (2008). Til skræk og exempel: Trolldom, dødsstraff og kriminalitet på Agder ca. 1550-1700. Kristiansand: Portal.

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Book with three-five authors

In the text

The first time all authors are mentioned. Next time only the first author and [et. al] (Fasting, Doksheim & Vatnøy 2011, p. 42) (Fasting et al., 2011, p. 67)

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.

Fasting, M., Doksheim, M., & Vatnøy, E.. (2011). Den norske velferden. Oslo: Civita.

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Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Book with two authors

In the text

Both authors are mentioned every time.

Authors, year, page. (Nielsen & Thon, 2008, p. 44)

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.

Nielsen, M.-B. O., & Thon, J. (2008). Wergelandenes kristiansand: Byguide. Kristiansand: Wergelandselskapet.

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Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Chapter in edited book

In the text

Author, year, page (Haakdal, 2010, p. 174)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. In the editor (Ed.) of the book, The book title  in italics (pages). City: Publisher.

Haakedal, E. (2010). Hva er en disippel?: Multimodalitet i elevarbeidsbøker. In E. S. Tønnessen (Ed.), Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis (pp. 171-191). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

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Add as "Book section".

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Book title, City, Publisher, Pages.

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Compendium

In the text

If the reference to the original text is given, use this. If not, give reference to the compendium (Nedrelid and Kofoed, s.a.)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. In Title of compendium in italics. City: university/college.

Nedrelid, T. E., & Kofoed, Ståle d. L. (s.a.). Utnytt søkemotorene Kompendium: Informasjonskompetansedelen av NO 120. Kristiansand: Universitety of Agder.

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Conference paper - abstract found online

In the text

Author, year (Rødland, 2010)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Paper presented at the [name of the conference, year and place]. Abstract retrieved from [URL].

Rødland, I. (2010). Fagreferenten - arbeidsoppgaver og forventninger. Paper presented at the Fagreferentkonferanse 2010, Stavanger. Abstract retrieved from http://www.uis.no/article.php?articleID=23134&categoryID=6006

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Conference Name, Conference Location and URL (Type "Abstract retrieved from" before the URL)

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Conversation

In the text

Name the person you have talked to. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing him/her correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

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E-book

In the text

Author, year (Stansell, 2010)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Book title in italics. doi / Retrieved from [URL]

Stansell, C. (2010). The feminist promise: 1792 to the present Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/agder/docDetail.action?docID=1038623

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title and doi / URL

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E-mail

In the text

Name the person cited and if necessary, place of work. Give information as to why you are citing this person, that this is an e-mail, and the date of the e-mail. Make sure you ask the person in question if you may cite him/her and if you are citing him/her correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

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Encyclopedia

In the text

Entry, year (The middle ages, 1997)

In the reference list

Title of entry. (year). In Editor (Ed.) Encyclopedia title in italics. City: Publisher.


The middle ages. (1997). In P. Henriksen (Ed.), Store Norske Leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Encyclopedia Title, City and Publisher.

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Image found online

In the text

Title of the image, year (Library, 2011)

In the reference list

Image title. [Image] (year). Retrieved from URL.

Library. [Bilde] (2011). Hentet fra http://www.colourbox.com

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Fill out the fields Year, Title (followed by [image]) and URL.

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Image from printed source

In the text

Give reference to the item you found the image in. For exapmle, from a book. Give information in the text about what you have used.

The painting "The wise virgin" by Jay DeFeo is an example of beat art (Forsgren, 2008, p. 124)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. City: Publisher.

Forsgren, F. (2008). Beatkunst i Norge. Oslo: Press.

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Journal articel with six or more authors

In the text

Only the first author is mentioned + et al. and year + page. (Smith et al., 2008, p. 284)

In the reference list

All authors are listed. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.

Smith, D. J., Kyle, S., Forty, L., Cooper, C., Walters, J., Russell, E., & Craddock, N. (2008). Differences in depressive symptom profile between males and females. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(3), 279-284.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.
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Journal article with one author

In the text

Author, year, page (Fredwall, 2004, p. 235)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title. Journal title in italicsvolume(issue), pages.

If information on volume is missing exclude this from the reference.

Fredwall, T. E. (2004). Mellom nærhet og distanse: Om Unn i Tarjei Vesaas' roman Is-slottet. Edda, 91(3), 218-237.

 

 

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Journal article with three-five authors

In the text

All authors are mentioned the first time. After this only the first one flollowed by et al. (Hansen, Ekholm & Kjøller 2008, p. 207) (Hansen et al., p. 208)

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.

 
Hansen, A. R., Ekholm, O., & Kjøller, M. (2008). Health behaviour among non-western immigrants with danish citizenship. Scandinavian journal of public health, 36(2), 205-210.

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Journal article with two authors

In the text

Both authors are mentioned every time + year and page (Sointu & Woodhead, 2008, 262)

In the reference list

Authors. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages.

Sointu, E., & Woodhead, L. (2008). Spirituality, gender, and expressive selfhood. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(2), 259-276.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.

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Laws and regulations

In the text

Short form of the law, year (The Copyright act, 1961)

In the reference list

Short title of the law. (year). Full title of the law (short title).

The copyright act. (1961). Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961 relating to copyright in literary, scientific and artistic works, etc.

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Add as "Government document".

Fill out the fields Author (short name of the law) Year, Title (full title).

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Lecture

In the text

Give the lecturer's name, title and the subject of the lecture. Make sure you ask the lecturer if you may cite him/her and if you are citing him/her correctly.

In the reference list

Do not include in reference list.

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Can be added in EndNote as "Personal communication" to save information.

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Master thesis

In the text

Author, year, page (Daland 2010, p. 68)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Master thesis. Publisher: City.


Daland, L. H. (2010). Livskraften ebber ut: En undersøkelse av befolkningsendringen i utvalgte uthavnssamfunn mellom lindesnes og lista 1900-1970. Master thesis. L.H. Daland, Kristiansand.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City og University (name of author) and thesis type.

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Master thesis online

In the text

Author, year (Fjalsett, 2010)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]

Fjalsett, G. K. (2010). Fra forfølgelse til statsreligion: Aspekter ved forholdet mellom stat og kirke på 300 tallet i bysants. Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_13517

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Multi-volume work

In the text

Editor, years (Helle, 1994-1998)

In the reference list

Editor. (Ed.). (years). Title in italics (Volume). City: Publisher.

Helle, K. (Ed.). (1994-1998). Aschehougs norgeshistorie (Vol. 1-12). Oslo: Aschehoug.

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Music CD

In the text

Artist, year (Kristensen, 2005)

In the reference list

Artist. (year). Title in italics [medium]. City: Label.

Kristensen, R. (2005). Shimmering minor [CD]. Kristiansand: Ponca Jazz Records.

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Music CD pamphlet

In the text

Artist, year (Birkeland and Trædal, 2004)

In the reference list

Artist. (year). Title in the cd pamphlet. Title of CD in italics [CD pamphlet]. City: Publisher.

Birkeland, M. and Trædal, T. (2004). Dansk musikk for cello og klaver. Dansk cellomusikk [CD pamphlet]. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder.

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Newspaper article

In the text

Author, year  (Inntjore, 2005)

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title. Newspaper title in italics, pages.

Inntjore, H. (2005, 23.08). Kan Agder likestilles?, Fædrelandsvennen, p. 4.

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Newspaper article from online newspaper

In the text

Author, year (Leer-Salvesen, 2008)

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title. Newspaper title in italics. Retrieved from [URL]

Leer-Salvesen, P. (2008, 10, 23.). Sinn lønn verd? Fædrelandsvennen. Retrieved from http://www.fvn.no/mening/debatt/article621538.ece?redir=true

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Online encyclopedia

In the text

Author, year (Tjønneland,  2009)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title of entry. Encyclopedia title. Retrieved from  [URL]

Tjønneland, E. (2009). Etikk. Store Norske Leksikon. Retrieved from http://snl.no/etikk

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Online encyclopedia with no author

In the text

If no author is given, place the entry in the place of the author.

(Information literacy, 2011)

In the reference list

Title of entry. (year). Encyclopedia. Retrieved from  [URL]

Information literacy (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_literacy

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Online film

In the text

Video title, year. (FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars, 2010)

In the reference list

Title. (year). [video]. Retrieved from URL

FINAL - Reference librarianship in Star Wars. (2010). [Videoklipp]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/7WD_QMWba-A

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Organisations (without personal author)

In the text

If no author is given, name the institution/organisation as responsible. (Universitetet i Agder, 2010)

In the reference list

Organization (year) Title in italics. Retrieved [date] from URL

Universitetet i Agder (2010) Organisasjonen. Retrieved from http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/organisasjonen

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Ph.D. thesis

In the text

Author, year, page (Dørum, 2004 p. 32)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty, University, City.

Dørum, K. (2004). Romerike og riksintegreringen: Integreringen av romerike i det norske rikskongedømmet i perioden ca. 1000-1350. Ph.D. thesis. Det humanistiske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo.

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Ph.D. thesis online

In the text

Author, year (Hovdelien, 2011)

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics. Ph.D. thesis. Retrieved from [URL].

Hovdelien, O. (2011). Den multikulturelle skolen - hva mener rektorene? Grunnskolerektorer, skolens verdiforankring og religions- og livssynsundervisningen. Ph.D. thesis. Retrieved from http://idtjeneste.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_8587

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Report found online

In the text

Author, year (Seeberg, 2011)    

In the reference list

Author. (year). Title in italics (Report No.). Retrieved from [URL]

Seeberg, M. L. (2011). Kunnskapsstatus (1990-2010): Forskning om etnisk diskriminering av barn og unge (NOVA rapport 8/2011). Retrieved from http://www.nova.no/asset/4573/1/4573_1.pdf

 

 

 

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Statistics

In the text

Statistics producer, year (Statistics Norway, 2011)

In the reference list

Statistics producer. (year). Title of statistics in italics. Retrieved from [URL]


Statistics Norway (2011) Students in tertiary education in Norway and Norwegian students abroad, by gender, age and type of college. 1 October 2010. Absolute figures and per cent. Retrieved from http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/02/40/utuvh_en/tab-2011-05-20-02-en.html

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Video, DVD

In the text

Director and producer, year (Lambert and Harrison, 2005)

In the reference list

Director and producer. (year). Title [type of medium]. City: Publisher.

Lambert, T. & Harrison, C. (Directors and producers). (2005). Guns, germs and steel [DVD]. [S.L.]:National Geographic.

The publishing place is missing from the information and is replaced by S.L. (sine loco)

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Website

In the text

Author, year (Melteig, 2016, 23.09.)

In the reference list

Author. (year, date). Title. Retrieved from URL
 
Melteig, E. (2016, 23.09). Cod's immune system is not special any more. Retrieved from https://titan.uio.no/node/1916

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Brochures and pamphlets

In the text

The responsible institution/organisation, year (Norwegian Environment Agency, 2013)

In the reference list

The responsible institution/organisation. (year). Title in italics [Brochure]. Place published: Publisher.

 

Norwegian Environment Agency. (2013). Right to roam [Brochure]. Trondheim: Norwegian Environment Agency.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Series title, Type, Place published og Publisher.

 

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Journal article with eight or more authors

In the text

Only the first author is mentioned + et al. and year + page. (Smith et al., 2008, p. 284)

In the reference list

The first six authors, ... the last author. (year). Title. Journal title in italics, volume(issue), pages. doi:

Zhang, W., Wang, G., Liu, Y., Zhao, X., Zou, D., Zhu, C., . . . Zreiqat, H. (2013). The synergistic effect of hierarchical micro/nano-topography and bioactive ions for enhanced osseointegration. Biomaterials, 34(13), 3184-3195. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.008

Kim, J., Cho, M., Hong, J. P., Bae, J., Cho, S. J., Hahm, B., . . . Chang, S. M. (2015). Gender differences in depressive symptom profile: Results from nationwide general population surveys in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 30(11), 1659-1666. Hentet fra https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630484/

 

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Article from printed journal: add as "Journal article"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages, doi

Article from online journal: add as "Electronic article"

 

Artikkel hentet fra internett legges inn som "Electronic article"

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages, doi or URL.

 

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