Chicago 16 A

This reference style is commonly used in theology and Bible sciences and is based on footnotes. The first time a reference is given it contains most of the same information as in the reference list. The next time, a shortened version is used containing only the author and title.

Anonymous newspaper article

In the footnote

If there is no author of the newspaper article, mention the newspaper as responsible for the article.


Newspaper, "Title,"date and year.

Farsunds Avis, "Sæløer og Korshavn ligger som en protest mot avfolkningstendensen i sørlandsk skjærgård," 09.07.1962.

In the reference list

Newspaper. "Title." Date and year.


Farsunds Avis. "Sæløer og Korshavn ligger som en protest mot avfolkningstendensen i sørlandsk skjærgård." 09.07.1962.

In EndNote

Add as "Newspaper article".


Put the newspaper´s name in the Reporter field (add a comma at the end of the name to avoid invertion) Year, Title and Issue date.

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Bible texts

In the footnote

Book chapter and verse

1 Thess. 4:11

In the reference list

Do not include in the reference list.

In EndNote

Can be added in EndNote as "Book", but not necessary.

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Blog entry

In the footnote

Author, blog title (Blog), date, year, URL.


Birgitte Kleivset Birgittes bloggotek (Blog), 27. 01., 2010, http://birgittekleivset.blogspot.com/2010/12/noen-2010-nyheter.html.


Unless the blog is cited several times, it is not necessary to put it in the reference list.

In the reference list

If you want to list the blog in your reference list, do it like this:
 
Author. "Title." In Blogtitle (blog), year.
 
Kleivset, Birgitte. "Noen 2010-Nyheter." In Birgittes bloggotek (Blog), 2010.

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Add as "Blog".
 
Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title of entry and URL.

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Book with four or more authors

In the footnote

First author and et.al.

First author, et al., Title in italics (City: Publisher, year).
 
Eide et al., Fordi vi er mennesker: en bok om samarbeidets etikk.

In the reference list

Up to ten authors; name all authors in the reference list. Only the name of the first author is inverted.


Authors. Title in italics. City: Publisher, year.

 
Eide, Solveig Botnen, Hans Herlof Grelland, Aslaug Kristiansen og Dag G. Aasland. Fordi vi er mennesker: en bok om samarbeidets etikk. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2011.

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Add as "Book".


Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Book with one author

In the footnote

Author, Title in italics (City: Publisher, year), page.
 
Terje Sødal, Til Skræk Og Exempel: Trolldom, Dødsstraff Og Kriminalitet På Agder Ca. 1550-1700 (Kristiansand: Portal, 2008), 34.

In the reference list

Author. Title in italics. City: Publisher, year.


Sødal, Terje. Til Skræk Og Exempel: Trolldom, Dødsstraff Og Kriminalitet På Agder Ca. 1550-1700. Kristiansand: Portal, 2008.

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Book with two authors

In the footnote

Both authors are mentioned every time.

Authors, Title in italics (City: Publisher, year), page.
 
May-Brith Ohman Nielsen and Jahn Thon, Wergelandenes Kristiansand: Byguide (Kristiansand: Wergelandselskapet, 2008), 26.

In the reference list

Both authors, Title in italics. City: Publisher, year.


Nielsen, May-Brith Ohman, and Jahn Thon. Wergelandenes Kristiansand: Byguide. Kristiansand: Wergelandselskapet, 2008.

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Add as "Book".


Fill out the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Chapter in edited book

In the footnote

Author, "Title" in Book title in italics, ed. Editor's name (City: Publisher, year), page.

Elisabet Haakedal, "Hva er en disippel?: Multimodalitet i elevarbeidsbøker," in Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis, ed. Elise Seip Tønnessen (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2010), 173.

In the reference list

Author. "Title". In Book title in italics, edited by [Editor's name], pages. City: Publisher, year.

Haakedal, Elisabet. "Hva er en disippel?: Multimodalitet i elevarbeidsbøker." In Sammensatte tekster: Barns tekstpraksis, redigert av Elise Seip Tønnessen, 171-91. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2010.

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Add as "Book section".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Book title, City, Publisher, Pages.

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Conference paper

In the footnote

Author, "Title" (paper presented at the [conference name], place, year).


Kjell J. Bråstad, "Agder - del av en Skagerrak-Kattegat-region?" (paper presented at the  Agderseminar, Kristiansand, 2008).

In the reference list

Author. "Title" Paper presented at the [conference name], place, year.

Bråstad, Kjell J. "Agder - del av en Skagerrak-Kattegat-region?" Paper presented at the Agderseminar, Kristiansand, 2008.

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Add as "Conference proceedings".


Fill out the fields Author, Year of conference, Title, Conference name and Conference location.

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DVD

In the footnote

Title, (Production company, year). Material.

Hawaii, Oslo: kjærlighet for viderekomne, (Scanbox Entertainment Norway, 2005), DVD.

In the reference list

Title. Production company, year. Material.

Hawaii, Oslo: kjærlighet for viderekomne. Scanbox Entertainment Norway, 2005. DVD.

In EndNote

Add as Audiovisual material.


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher and Type

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E-book

In the footnote

Author, "Title." (City: Publisher, year), URL.

Christine Stansell, "The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present." (New York: Modern Library, 2010), http://site.ebrary.com/lib/agder/docDetail.action?docID=10386235.

In the reference list

Author. Title in italics. City: Publisher, year. URL.
 
Stansell, Christine. The feminist promise: 1792 to the present.  New York: Modern Library, 2010. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/agder/docDetail.action?docID=10386235.

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Add as "Electronic book".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher and URL.

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Edited book

In the footnote

Editor, ed. Title in italics (City: Publisher, year)

Elise Seip Tønnessen, ed. Sammensatte Tekster: Barns Tekstpraksis (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget,2010).

In the reference list

Editor, ed. Title in italics. City: Publisher, year.


Tønnessen, Elise Seip, ed. Sammensatte Tekster: Barns Tekstpraksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2010.

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Fill out the fields Editor, Year, Title, City and Publisher.

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Electronic article (online)

In the footnote

Author, "Title," Journal title in italics volume, issue. (year), URL.

Alexandra Irene Larsen, "Krigen på Sri Lanka og stormaktsinteresser i Det indiske hav," Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning 50, no. 4 (2009), http://www.idunn.no/ts/tfs/2009/04/art07.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Journal title in italics volume, issue. (year): Pages. URL.

Larsen, Alexandra Irene. "Krigen på Sri Lanka og stormaktsinteresser i Det indiske hav." Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning 50, nr. 4 (2009): 551-66. http://www.idunn.no/ts/tfs/2009/04/art07.

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Add as "Electronic article"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages and URL.

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Encyclopedia

In the footnote

Well known encyclopedias are often cited in the footnote, and do not call for an entry in the reference list. The abbreviation s.v. (sub verbo - under the word) is used. You should give information about which edition you have used.


Store Norske Leksikon, 3. ed., s.v. "middelalderen".

In the reference list

If you want to list the reference in the reference list, do it like this:


Encyclopedia title. Edition. Number of volumes. City: Publisher, year.


Store Norske Leksikon. 3. ed. 16. vols. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget, 1997.

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Add as "Encyclopedia".


Fill out the fields  Author (if named), Title, Encyclopedia title, City and Publisher.

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Journal article with one author

In the footnote

Author, "Title," Journal name in italics, issue. (year), page.

Terje E. Fredwall, "Mellom Nærhet Og Distanse: Om Unn I Tarjei Vesaas' Roman Is-Slottet," Edda, nr. 3 (2004), 235.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Journal title in italics volume, no. issue. (year): pages.

Fredwall, Terje E. "Mellom Nærhet Og Distanse: Om Unn I Tarjei Vesaas' Roman Is-Slottet." Edda, nr. 3 (2004): [218]-37

In this example the information on volume is missing and cannot be given in the reference.

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Add as "Journal article"


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.

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Journal article with two authors

In the footnote

Authors, "Title," Journal name in italics, issue. (year), page.


Both authors are mentioned every time.

Eeva Sointu and Linda Woodhead, "Spirituality, Gender, and Expressive Selfhood," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47, no. 2 (2008), 274.

In the reference list

Authors. "Title." Journal title in italics volume, no. issue. (year): pages.

Sointu, Eeva, and Linda Woodhead. "Spirituality, Gender, and Expressive Selfhood." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47, no. 2 (2008): 259-76.

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Add as "Journal article".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages.
To add more than one author, press enter between them to separate them.

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Laws and regulations

In the footnote

Name of law or regulation," (year).


"Copyright act. Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961 Relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic works, etc.,"  (1961).

In the reference list

"Name of law or regulation." (year)


"Copyright act. Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961 Relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic works, etc."  (1961)

In EndNote

Add as "Legal Rule or Regulation".


Fill out the fields Year and Title.

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Master thesis

In the footnote

Author, "Title" (master thesis, publisher, year), page.


Master thesis are not formally published, so the student is listed as the publisher.
Leif Helge Daland, "Livskraften ebber ut: en undersøkelse av befolkningsendringen i utvalgte uthavnssamfunn mellom Lindesnes og Lista 1900-1970" (Master thesis, L.H. Daland, 2010), 28.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Master thesis, publisher, year.


Daland, Leif Helge. "Livskraften ebber ut: en undersøkelse av befolkningsendringen i utvalgte uthavnssamfunn mellom Lindesnes og Lista 1900-1970." Mastergradsavhandling, L.H. Daland, 2010.

In EndNote

Add as "Thesis".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, University and Thesis type.

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Multi-volume work

In the footnote

Serial title in italics, number of volumes. (City: Publisher, years)

Aschehougs Norgeshistorie, 12 vols. (Oslo: Aschehoug,1994-1998).

In the reference list

Serial title in italics. Edited by... Number of volumes. City: Publisher, years.


Aschehougs Norgeshistorie. Redigert av Knut Helle. 12 vol. Oslo: Aschehoug, 1994.1998.

In EndNote

Add as "Serial".


Fill out the fields Year, Title, Editor, City and Publisher.

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Music CD

In the footnote

Artist, Title, (City: Label, year), CD.


Rolf Kristensen, Shimmering minor, (Kristiansand: Ponca Jazz Records, 2005), CD.

In the reference list

Artist. Title. City: Label, year. CD.


Kristensen, Rolf. Shimmering minor. Kristiansand: Ponca Jazz Records, 2005. CD.

In EndNote

Add as Audiovisual material.


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher and Type.

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Newspaper article

In the footnote

Author, "Title," Newspaper in italics, date and year, page.

Hilde Inntjore, "Kan Agder likestilles?," Fædrelandsvennen, 23.08.2005, 4.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Newspaper in italics. Date and year, pages.


Inntjore, Hilde. "Kan Agder likestilles?." Fædrelandsvennen. 23.08.2005, 4.

In EndNote

Add as "Newspaper article".


Fill out the fields Reporter, Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages og Issue date.

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Online encyclopedia

In the footnote

Like printed encyclopedia, but add the URL and date of last edit /date of download.

Eivind Tjønneland, "Etikk," in Store Norske Leksikon. Last edited march 4. 2009. http://snl.no/etikk.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." In Encyclopedia title, last edited date, URL.

Tjønneland, Eivind. "Etikk." In Store Norske Leksikon, last edited march 4. 2009, http://snl.no/etikk.

In EndNote

Add as "Encyclopedia".


Fill out the fields Author (if named), Title, Encyclopedia title, City and Publisher.

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Online newspaper article

In the footnote

Author, "Title," Newspaper in italics, date and year, URL.

Paul Leer-Salvesen, "Sin lønn verdt?," Fædrelandsvennen, 23.10.2008, http://www.fvn.no/ mening/debatt7article621538.ece?redir=true.

In the reference list

Author. "Titlel." Newspaper in italics. Date and year. URL.


Leer-Salvesen, Paul. "Sin lønn verdt?." Fædrelandsvennen 23.10.2008. http://www.fvn.no/mening/debatt7article621538.ece?redir=true

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Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title and URL.

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Organisations (no author)

In the footnote

Organization, "Title," Retrieved date from URL.

Universitetet i Agder, "Om organisasjonen,"  Retrieved july 5th 2011 from http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/ om_universitetet/organisasjonen.

In the reference list

Organization. "Title." Retrieved date from URL.

Universitetet i Agder. "Om organisasjonen." Retrieved july 5th 2011 from http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/ om_universitetet/organisasjonen.

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".


Fill out the fields Author (organisation name with comma at the end to avoid invertion), Year, Title, URL (type "retrieved [date] before the URL)

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Ph.D. thesis

In the footnote

Author, "Title" (Ph.D. thesis, University, year), page.

Knut Dørum, "Romerike og riksintegreringen: integreringen av Romerike i det norske rikskongedømmet i perioden ca. 1000-1350" (Ph.D. thesis, Universitetet i Oslo, 2004), 65.

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Ph.D. thesis, University, year.

Dørum, Knut. "Romerike og riksintegreringen: integreringen av Romerike i det norske rikskongedømmet i perioden ca. 1000-1350." Ph.D. thesis, Universitetet i Oslo, 2004.

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Fill out the fieldsAuthor, Year, Title, University and Thesis type.

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Report found online

In the footnote

Author, Title, (City: Publisher, year), URL.


Trine Klette, Tid for trøst: en undersøkelse av sammenhenger mellom trøst og trygghet over to generasjoner, (Oslo: Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring, 2007), http://www.nova.no/asset/2721/1/2721_1.pdf.

In the reference list

Author. Title in italics. City: Publisher, year. URL


 Klette, Trine. Tid for trøst: en undersøkelse av sammenhenger mellom trøst og trygghet over to generasjoner.  Oslo: Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring, 2007. http://www.nova.no/asset/2721/1/2721_1.pdf.

In EndNote

Add as "Electronic Book".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title and URL.

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Website

In the footnote

Author, "Title," Retrieved date from URL.

Kari-Mette Walmann Hidle, "William og Kate - et uskyldig eventyr?," Retrieved may 4th 2011 from http://www.forskning.no/ artikler/2011/mai/287215

In the reference list

Author. "Title." Retrieved date from URL.

Hidle, Kari-Mette Walmann. "William og Kate - et uskyldig eventyr?" Retrieved may 4th 2011 from http://www.forskning.no/artikler/2011/mai/287215

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Add as "Web page".


Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, URL. In the URL field, type "retrieved [date] from before the URL.

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