IEEE

IEEE is used in engineering and in ICT studies.

The references are numbered in the order they appear in the text and are enclosed in square brackets, e.g. [1].  If you need to cite a particular page, it can be done like this: [1:34]. A reference list is placed at the end of the text containing full details of the sources.  The references appear in numerical order using the same numbers as in the text.

See "IEEE Editorial Style Manual", chapter V for more information.

 

Book with one author

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, Title of the book, xth ed. City: Publisher, year.

[14] J. D. Cressler, Silicon Earth: Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 2016.

For e-book:

[#] Author, Title of the book. xth ed. City: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: DOI (or URL)

[2] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, Intern. ed. Boston, Mass.: Pearson education, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www-dawsonera-com.ezproxy.uis.no/abstract/9780273793762

In EndNote

Add as "Book".
 
Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher, Year and Edition (write only number).

For e-book, use "Electronic book":

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Place published, Publisher, Edition (write only number),  Type of medium(write Online), DOI.

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Book with two - six authors

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc. 

In the reference list

[#] Authors, Title of the book, xth ed. City: Publisher, year.
 
[12] T. Aven, M. Boyesen, O. Njå, K. H. Olsen, and K. Sandve, Samfunnssikkerhet. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2004.

For e-book:

[#] Authors, Title of the book, xth ed. City: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: DOI (or URL)

[2]  R. W. Allmendinger, N. Cardozo and D. M. Fisher. Structural geology algorithms: vectors and tensors. Cambridge: Cambridge univ. press, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uisbib/detail.action?docID=824466 

In EndNote

Add as "Book".
 
Fill in the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them) Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Edition (write only number).

For e-book, use "Electronic book":

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Place published, Publisher, Edition (write only number), Type of medium(write Online), DOI.

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Book with more than six authors

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc. 

In the reference list

[#] Authors, Title of the book, xth ed. City: Publisher, year.
 
[#] R. Otnes et al., Underwater Acoustics Networking Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.

In EndNote

Add as "Book".
 
Fill in the fields Author (press enter between the authors to separate them), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Edition (write only number).

For e-book, use "Electronic book":

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Place published, Publisher, Edition (write only number), Type of medium(write Online), DOI.

 

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Chapter in edited book

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author of chapter, "Title of chapter," in Title of the book,  xth ed. Book editor, Ed. City: Publisher, year, pages.

[2] A. A. Azab and H. Meling, "Decentralized service allocation in a broker overlay based grid," in Cloud Computing: First International Conference, M. E. Jaatun et al., Eds. Berlin: Springer, 2009, pp. 200-211.

For e-article:

[#] Author of chapter, "Title of chapter," i Title of the book. xth ed. Book editor, Ed. City: Publisher, year, pages. [Online]. Available: DOI (eller URL)

[1] Y. A. Yusoff, F. Mohamed, M. S. Sunar, and S. J. H. Chand, "State of the Art in the 3D Cardiovascular Visualization," in Medical Imaging Technology: Reviews and Computational Applications, K. W. Lai and D. E. O. Dewi, Eds., Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2015, pp. 143-168. [Online]. Available: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-287-540-2_7

In EndNote

Add as "Book section".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Book title, Place Published, Publisher, Pages, Edition (write only number).

Add chapter in e-book as "Electronic book section":

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Editor, Book title, Place published, Publisher, Pages, Edition (write only number), DOI.

 

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Conference paper

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author(s), "Title of paper," presented at Conference title, place, country, date or year. 

[1] F. Wang, H. Chen, J. Zhao og C. Rong, "IDMTM: A novel intrusion detection mechanism based on trust model for ad hoc networks," presentert på 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Ginowan, Japan, 2008.

[2] P. Ingwersen and A. Elleby, "Do Open Access Working Papers Attract More Citations Compared to Printed Journal Articles from the Same Research Unit?," presentert ved Proceedings of the ISSI 2011 Conference : 13th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics & Informetrics, Durban, South Africa, 04.-07. July 2011, [Online]. Hentet fra: http://pure.iva.dk/da/publications/do-open-access-working-papers-attract-more-citations-compared-to-printed-journal-articles-from-the-same-research-unit(4d99e359-bb7a-427a-90eb-c1009723d316).html 

In EndNote

Legges inn som "Conference Paper".
  
Fill in the fields Author, Title, Conference name, Conference location (incl. date and year). DOI or URL.

When electronic paper:

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title, Volume, Issue, Pages, E-pub date, Type (write Online), DOI or URL.

 

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Edited book

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Editor(s), Eds., Title of the book. xth ed. City: Publisher, year.

[1] A. Bourmistrov, Ed., International Arctic petroleum cooperation: Barents Sea scenarios. London: Routledge, 2015.

[2] M. G. Jaatun, G. Zhao and C. Rong, Eds., Cloud Computing: First International Conference, Cloudcom 2009, Beijing, China, December 1-4, 2009 : Proceedings. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

For e-book:

[#] Editor(s), Eds., Title of the book. xth ed. City: Publisher, year. [Online]. Available: DOI (or URL)

[1] K. W. Lai and D. E. O. Dewi, Eds., Medical Imaging Technology: Reviews and Computational Applications. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2015. [Online]. AVailable: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-981-287-540-2

In EndNote

Add as "Edited book".

Fill in the fields Editor, Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher.

 

When Edited electronic book:

Add the fields Type of work (write Online), DOI

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Journal article with one author

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc. 

In the reference list

[#] Author, "Title of article," Journal title, volume, issue, pages, month abbreviated (if available), year. doi:

[1] J. U. Buncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: Theory," IEEE Trans. Aerosp.Electron. Syst.,vol. AES-4, no. 3, pp. 352-377, Sep. 1944.

[2] R. Davidrajuh, "Modeling and implementation of supplier selection procedures for e-commerce initiatives," Industrial Management and Data Systems, vol. 103, no. 1-2, pp. 28-38, 2003. doi: 10.1108/02635570310456878, [Online]. 

[3] X. Wu, "Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods," Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 49, pp. 23-49, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/
annurev-fluid-010816-060322
 

Note: Use the entire journal title if you do not have an abbreviated title.

Note: Use either page number or article number.

Note: If information on DOI or URL is missing exclude this form the reference.

In EndNote

Article from printed journal: Add as "Journal article".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Date, Volume, Issue, Pages.


Article from online journal: Add as "Electronic article".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title, Volume, Issue, Pages, E-pub date, Type of work (type [Online]), DOI or URL.

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Journal article with two - six authors

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Authors, "Title of article", Journal title, volume, issue, pages, month abbreviated (if available), year. doi:

[1] J. Zhang og N. Tansu, "Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates," IEEE Photon.J.,vol. 5, no. 2, Apr. 2013, art no. 2600111.

[2] A. Lekka, C. Turner, and P.P. Menon, "Anti-windup for a class of partially linearisable non-linear systems with application to wave energy converter control," IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 2403-2414. doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2016.0296, [Online].

[3] W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, og H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-Optic Frequency Shifter Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Incident at an Oblique Angle," Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115-117, Feb. 1986. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-11-2-115

 


Note: Use the entire journal title if you do not have an abbreviated title.

Note: Use either page number or article number.

Note: If information on DOI or URL is missing exclude this form the reference.

 

In EndNote

Article from printed journal: Add as "Journal article".

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Date, Volume, Issue, Pages.

 

Article from online journal: Add as "Electronic article".

Fill out the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title, Volume, Issue, Pages, E-pub date, Type of work (type [Online]), DOI eller URL

 

Press enter between the authors to separate them.

 

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Journal article with more than six authors

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] First author et al., "Title of article," Journal title, volum, issue, pages, month abbreviated (if available), year. doi:

[1] J. B. Jakobsen et al., "Assessment of wind conditions at a fjord inlet by complementary use of sonic anemometers and lidars," Energy Procedia, vol. 110, pp. 100-112. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610215021773?via%3Dihub

[2] P. Kopyt et al., "Electric Properties of Graphene-Based Conductive Layers from Dc up to Terahertz Range," IEEE THz Sci. Technol., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 480 - 490, May 2016. doi: 10.1109/TTHZ.2016.2544142, [Online].

[3] A. Hong et al., "Real-time holographic tracking and control of microrobots," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 143-148, 2017.
 

Note: Use the entire journal title if you do not have a abbreviated title.

Note: Use either page number or article number.

Note: If information on DOI or URL is missing exclude this form the reference.

In EndNote

Article from printed journal: Add as "Journal article".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Date, Volume, Issue, Pages.


Article from online journal: Add as "Electronic article".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Periodical title, Volume, Issue, Pages, E-pub date, Type of work (type [Online]), DOI or URL.


Press enter between the authors to separate them.


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Laws and regulations

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Title in italics, year.
 
[1] Lov om opphavsrett til åndsverk m.v., 1961.

For e-version:

Title in italics, year. [Online]. Available: URL

[1]  Lov om endringer i lov 4. juli 2003 nr. 83 om elektronisk kommunikasjon (ekomloven), 2008. [Online]. Available: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2008-01-11-2?q=elektronisk

In EndNote

Add as "Legal Rule or Regulation".


Fill in the fields Author (write the short title of the legal rule or regulation), Year, Title (full title).

Law from Internet resource:

Author (short title of the law) Year, Title (entire title). Type of medium (write Online), URL.

 

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Master´s or doctoral thesis

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, "Title of thesis," Master/doctoral thesis, department, university, place, year.
 

For e-thesis:

[#] Author, "Title of thesis," Master/doctoral thesis, department, university, place, year. Available: DOI (or URL)

[2] M. G. Jaatun, "Security in Critical Information Infrastructures," Dr. Philos., Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Phd. no. 254, 2015. [Online]. Hentet fra: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/293101 

In EndNote

Add as "thesis".
 
Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Academic department, Place published, University, Degree, Document number, DOI.

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Newspaper article

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, "Title of article," Title of newspaper, pages, publishing date. Available: URL

[1] P. Osmundsen, "Rømmer de unna subsidiene?," Dagens næringsliv, pp. 34, Mar. 31,  2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.dn.no/meninger/2017/03/30/2048/Innlegg/rommer-de- 

In EndNote

Add as "Magazine article".
 
Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Journal, Pages, Date, Type of article (write Online), URL.

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Patents

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Inventor(s), "Patent title," patentnumber, date and year.   

[1] T. Mei and T. Yang, "Circuit and method for average - current regulation of light-emitting diodes," U.S. Patents 7 898 187 B1, 01.03.2012.

For e-patent:

[#] Inventor(s), "Patent title," patentnumber, date and year. [Online]. Available: DOI (eller URL)

[1] L. M. R. Brooks, "Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror," 19.05.1992. [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN

In EndNote

Add as "Patent".

Fill in the fields Inventor (press enter to separate the inventors if there are more than one), Year, Title, Patent Number, Issue date.

When Patent found at Internet:

Add:  . [Online] after the year

Fill in DOI or URL

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Report online

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, "Title," abbreviated name of the organisation, place, country, report number, date. Year. 

[1] J. H. Davis and J. R. Gocdell, "Calibration program for the 16-foot antemma," Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. memo. NGL-066-693, 15.11.1987.

For e-report:

[#] Author, "Title," abbreviated name of the organisation, place, country, report number, date. Year. Available: DOI (or URL)

[2] GeoBasisNRW, "ATKIS - Digitale Topographisches Karte 1:25.000 (DTK25)," Bezirksregierung Koln, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.bezregkoeln.nrw.de/brkinternet/presse/publicationen/geobasis/
faltblatt_geobasis_atkis01.pdf 

In EndNote

Add as "Report". Add the description of the type of the report and report number in TYPE (Tech Rep., Contract etc.).

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Institution, Date, Type. 

NB! , after date, URL.

 

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Standards

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Title in italics, standard number, date.
  
[1] Areal- og volumberegning av bygninger, NS 3940, 2012.

[2] Light and lighting - Energy performance of lighting in buildings, ISO DIS 20086, 10.08.2017. 

In EndNote

Add as "Standard".

Fill in the fields Title, Document Number, Year.

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Statistics

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Statistics Producer, Title of the statistics, year. Available: URL

[2] Statistisk sentralbyrå,  Bruk av IKT i næringslivet, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.ssb.no/statistikkbanken/selecttable/hovedtabellHjem.asp?KortNavnWeb=iktbrukn&CMSSubjectArea=teknologi-og-innovasjon&checked=true

In EndNote

Add as "Web Page".
 
Fill in the fields Author (remember "," after Statistisk sentralbyrå to avoid inverting), Year, Title, URL.

 

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Unpublished (conversation, e-mail, manuscript, lecture)

In the text

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, personal communication, abbreviated month, year.

[#] Author, "Title of manuscript," unpublished.
 

[1] A. Harrison, personal communication, May, 1995.

[2] B. Smith, "An approach to graphs of linear forms", unpublished.

[3] A. Brahms, "Representation error for real numbers in binary computer arithmetic," IEEE Computer Group Respository, Paper R-67-85.

For personal conversation or exchange of letters, we recommend the exact date, not just the month.

Specify who you have talked with, which role this person has in this context, how communication has taken place, and time.

Always ask the person who has agreed to approve your quotes. Make sure you quote them correctly. 

In EndNote

Add as "Unpublished work" eller "Manuscript".

For Unpublished work fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Date. If year and month are missing, write "unpublished" in the field for year.

Drop the field Date for manuscript.

 

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Website

In the text

IEEE Editorial Style Manual have no suggestions on how to refer to a Website. This is the Citation compass' suggestion on how to do this:


Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Author, Title of website, year. Available: URL. Accessed on: Read date.
    
[1] B. Pentz, Døgnåpent biblio på UiS, 2015. Available: http://www.uis.no/bibliotek/aktuelt/dognapent-biblio-pa-uis-article98438-8346.html. Accessed on: 31.07.2017.

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".

Fill in the fields Author, Year, Title, Access year, Access date, URL.

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Website without personal author

In the text

IEEE Editorial Style Manual have no suggestions on how to refer to a Website. This is the Citation compass' suggestion on how to do this:

Citations in the text: [1], [2], etc.

In the reference list

[#] Organization. [#] Author, Title of website, year. Available: URL. Accessed on: Read date.


[2] Petroleum Safety Authority Norway, Audit of Aker BP - Skarv FPSO, 2017. Available: http://www.ptil.no/audit-reports/audit-of-aker-bp-skarv-fpso-article12917-889.html.  Accessed on: Aug. 2, 2017.

In EndNote

Add as "Web page".

Fill in the fields Author (remember "," after Petroleum Safety Authority Norway to avoid inverting), , Year, Title, Access year, Access date, URL.

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