Direct quote (up to 40 words)

The quote is quoted and followed by parentheses or footnotes. In the footnote or parenthesis you enter information about author and year and page numbers. If you cite a website or other material that does not have page numbers, enter the section number, time mark, etc. which makes it easier for the reader to find the quote.

Example (APA 6th): The settlement has been widely discussed in the media in recent years, with special focus on the attractive properties along the southern coast.  Average figures show that in municipalities with domicile, housing is as much inhabited during the year as in municipalities without domicile  (Aanesland & Holm, 2002, p. 84). This study thus underlines arguments that are already …

Longer quotes (more than 40 words)

In the footnote or parenthesis you enter information about author and year and page numbers. The quote is inserted in a separate section with indentation.

Example (APA 6th):

In recent years , the settlement has been the subject of much discussion, with special focus on the attractive properties along the southern coast. Among other things, it has been pointed out here that political regulation does not always lead to increased welfare for the many:  

Residential can be an example that confirms that the overall welfare of society is diminishing. The desired results the municipality achieves with residence, are overall very small. The purpose of residence is to get a better environment, more inhabited houses with light in the windows on dark winter evenings. Today’s technique results in the windows most often being lit by those who are in default and who have a bad conscience for not living there. (Aanesland & Holm, 2002, p. 84)

How to raise arguments like …   

Paraphrasing (rewriting)

To paraphrase is to rewrite in your own words. Many people think that this flows better in the text. If you have used a particular page, the APA manual tells you to enter page numbers *.

Example (APA 6th): The settlement has been widely discussed in the media in recent years, with special focus on the attractive properties along the southern coast. A survey from 2002 shows that the settlement pattern is not appreciably affected in municipalities without residence, compared to municipalities with residence (Aanesland & Holm, 2002, p. 84). This study thus underlines arguments that are already …

* Here there are different professional traditions, talk to the teacher

If possible, find the primary source (ie what is cited). If this is not possible, show that you are reproducing the quote from another text.

Example (APA 6th):

(Olsen, cited in Hansen 2010, p. 5)

In the example above, Olsen should not be included in the literature list because this source is not checked.

If you have mentioned the author name in the text, you can only refer to the year in parentheses immediately after the author name.

Examples: Researchers such as Aanesland and Holm (2002) have shown that residence does not have a noticeable effect on the settlement in the individual municipality…

For direct quotation, always refer to the page that the quote was taken from.

Ex .: The settlement has been widely discussed in the media in recent years, with special focus on the attractive properties along the southern coast. “ Average figures show that in municipalities with domicile, housing is as much inhabited during the year as in municipalities without domicile ” (Aanesland & Holm, 2002, p. 84).

If you are referring to continuous text across multiple pages, always specify the first and last page.

Ex .: It is argued, among other things, that the unintended effects of residence are of considerable scope (Aanesland & Holm, 2002, pp. 83-85).

If you want to mention the book’s title in the text, it is italicized.

If there is no information on where, when or at which publisher the document was published, there are standard abbreviations for this.

Missing publisher: (n.p.)

Missing publishing date: (n.d.)

Missing publishing place: (n.p.)

If the source is missing author, title is inserted instead of author name. Works that stand alone are given a title in italics (eg book), while works that are part of something larger are given a title in quotation marks (eg article).

Do you use an article taken from e.g. Large Norwegian lexicon or Wikipedia that does not have an author, use the article title in the position where the author normally stands. See sample collection for more information.

NOTE: When an institution is responsible for the text (eg the University of Agder), the institution must be stated as ” author ” .

In the APA style, only the author’s surname and year are set in the parentheses. If a writer has several publications in the same year, these are separated by a small a, b and so on.

Example (APA 6th):

(Repstad, 2007a, p. 43; Repstad, 2007b, p. 78)

The letter is also included in the literature list.

Repstad, P. (2007a), etc.

Repstad, P. (2007b), etc …

If you use multiple sources in the same sentence, these can be set in the same parentheses if you separate them with a semicolon. The sources should be in alphabetical order.

Example (APA 6th):

(Repstad, 2007; Riis, 1996)

If you refer to several works where several authors have the same surname, you should use initials to distinguish between them.
In this way we ensure that we do not create confusion about the author. This is true even if the documents are published at different times.

(H. Jacobsen, 2000)

(CM Jacobsen, 2002)

Jacobsen, CM (2002). Many forms of belonging: Young Muslims in Norway . Oslo: Unipax.

Jacobsen, H. (2000). The Youth Worker: About Culture and Method in Leisure Clubs . Oslo: Kommuneforlaget.

When you have a publication that has been published in several editions, the edition information should be stated in the literature list. It is then the year of the edition that you have used as a source, which you will use. You should not include circulation unless this is understood as an edition information (for example, revised circulation).

Example (APA 6th):

In the text: (Repstad, 2014)

In Literature: Repstad, P. (2014). Sociological perspectives for health and social workers (3rd ed.). Oslo: University Press.

If you use a newer translation of an older work, you can make this visible by stating the year for both the original edition and the edition you use yourself.

Example: (James 1890/1982)

If the year of the original edition is not stated, you can make it clear that you are using a newer edition in this way:

Example: (Aristotle’s translation 1931)

To use images or other illustrations in the text, consider:

  • Is it necessary? Does the illustration give essential information to the text, or is it just for decoration? Images and illustrations should add something that the text cannot provide to the reader.
  • Quote: http://sokogskriv.no/category/kildebruk-and-referanser/citation
  • Privacy: Are there people who are recognizable? http://delrett.no/nb/artikler/legge-ut-avbildninger-av-andre-personer

You also need to think about copyright.

  • To use an entire table, figure, or image from another source, you often need to obtain permission from the copyright owner or licensee. The author must be named anyway, and the source is referenced.
  • Publishers often take over the rights to published articles and books, and in such cases you must contact the publisher to obtain permission.
  • You can reuse parts of a table without having to obtain permission, cf. Section 22, but the originator must be named and the source must be stated.
  • If the author has been dead for 70 years or more, the table, figure or image can be used without permission, but you must still provide the name of the author.
  • Check the Spirit Act if in doubt. The website delrett.no is also a good source.
  • http://delrett.no/nb/artikler/bilder-og-kunst http://delrett.no/nb/artikler/finn-og-bruk-bilder

All pictures, figures and tables you insert into the text must have a caption and you must specify who has taken the picture or created the table / figure. This also applies to pictures and illustrations you have created yourself.

In the text under picture / figure / table:

Figure 1. The cross model – perspectives and writing purposes in the practice logs. From On the Road to Becoming a Writer: The Teacher Student in Dialogue with Theory and Practice , by T. Klemp, 2016 ( https://press.nordicopenaccess.no/index.php/noasp/catalog/book/4 ). CC BY 4.0

In Literature List:

Klemp, T. (2016). On the way to becoming a writing teacher: The teacher student in dialogue with theory and practice. Retrieved from https://press.nordicopenaccess.no/index.php/noasp/catalog/book/4

If you have taken the photo yourself, you must include a detailed description in the caption that explains meaning and context, such as date and place. Such a picture should not be included in the literature list.

Figure 1 . Iced beach at low tide, Ringshaug, Tønsberg. March 9, 2018.

When referring to widely known scriptures such as the Bible or the Qur’an, state which book, chapter, and verse the quote is from. Example APA 6th: (1 Thess. 4:11)

It is not necessary to include entries in the literature list.

DOI (digital object identifier) ​​is a unique identification code that is assigned to electronic documents to make it easy to find on the internet. Unlike URLs that can be changed or deleted, the DOI number is a permanent identifier that is always associated with a document. You can usually find the DOI number on the front page of electronic articles, near the copyright statement, or on the database landing page for the article.

Example of DOI number: 10.1177 / 1090198109343895

To find an article using the DOI number, enter the following URL followed by the DOI number: [ http://doi.org/ ]. You will then be taken directly to the article:

Example: http://doi.org/10.1177/1090198109343895

When writing a reference that has a DOI number, you must add https://doi.org/ in front of the number itself.

Sometimes there are no page numbers, e.g. in e-books or in some articles. If you have direct quotes, try to refer to section number, if any the heading of the chapter and, if applicable, the section number

You may want to count paragraphs yourself.

For references to a chapter in a book in the literature list, you can omit page numbers if it is not stated.

Kindle placement codes are not recommended used by APA.

Many compendiums are composed of articles and chapters in books. In these cases, you are referring to the original source, that is, the article or book chapter you have read.

If the compendium is written by a teacher, use the book format and insert the information you have.

In the past, it was common to include a reading date for all websites or resources. APA 6 says it is only necessary to include the reading date for web pages that change over time. However, it is also said that it is difficult to generalize this to web pages, and one must consider whether the reading date is needed:

http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/08/when-to-include-retrieval-dates-for-online-sources.html

We encourage you to check with your school if they require a website reading date.

If you need a reading date, insert it in front of URL: Retrieved 1.6.2017 from …

In the Source Compass EndNote style, the Read Date will be included if the “Access Date” field is filled in.


Occasionally, the source you have used does not fit perfectly into one of the “boxes” on the source compass. Then you may have to combine two boxes or create your own variant of a “box”.

The most important thing is that you are consistent and that it appears in the literature list:

Author. (year). Title [possibly material type in sharp brackets] and URL or publisher / publisher

If in doubt, contact the library at your place of study.

When quoting directly, always state the page. If you paraphrase, or write in your own words, the APA manual tells you to provide page numbers *. If you mention the text more generally, page numbers may be redundant. See referral and direct quote questions for more information.

If you are referring to a source in its entirety and not to a particular page, you do not need to provide page numbers.

* Here there are different professional traditions, talk to the teacher

Section = section
Bind = bd.
Sheet = p.
An alii (and more) = et al.
Figure (s) = fig.
Chapter = Chap.
Edition = ed.
Translator / Translated = translate.
Editor (s) = ed.
Revised = rev.
Page (s) = p.
Table (s) = tab.
Out of place = n.p
Without year = n.d.
Edition = ed.


Note: Ibid. does not belong in the APA style

When you refer to a book in a multi-volume work, you do it as if you were referring to a regular book. You can include a binding number in the title:

Rough, EK, Holter, IM & Toverud, KC (Eds.). (2015). Nursing book: Vol. 1. Basic knowledge in clinical nursing (5th ed.). Oslo: Cappelen Damm academically.

You can make direct quote changes, but think carefully before doing so

When you have a direct quote but want to omit something that is not relevant

Original phrase:

“Creations are considered to be works in the literary, scientific or artistic field (including photography), which appear as the result of individual, creative spiritual efforts on the part of the author.”

Insert three periods where you deleted:

“Creations are regarded as intellectual works in the literary, scientific or artistic field …, which appear as the result of individual, creative spiritual efforts on the part of the author” (Lassen & Lund, 2012).

When you have a direct quote but want to add something to clarify

Original phrase:

Most species eat mostly plant foods, with large stomachs, long and twisted intestines and a well-developed appendicitis.

Insert sharp braces around what you added:

“Most species [pig caves] eat mostly plant food, with large stomachs, long and twisted intestines and a well-developed appendicitis” (Frafjord, 2018).

Sources:

Frafjord, K. (2018). Pigg Rats. In R. Bolstad (Ed.), Large Norwegian Lexicon . Retrieved from https://snl.no/op copyright.

Lassen, BS & Lund, AM (2012). Copyright. In R. Bolstad (Ed.), Large Norwegian Lexicon . Retrieved from https://snl.no/op copyright.