Personal communication (Lecture notes, e-mails etc.)

In-text citations

Format: Specify the name of the person(s) involved, why the source is relevant, and give as precise a date as possible. Get the approval to cite the person(s) involved and make sure you quote correctly.

Ex.: My teacher’s advice was: “don’t be afraid of making mistakes, that’s how we learn”. (D, Smith, personal communication, december 2016).

In the reference list

These sources are not included in the reference list.

Private letters, e-mails, conversations, phone calls, and other type of communication which are irretrievable for others is referred to as personal communication and is not included in the reference list. This also includes notes and handouts that are not available for others.

I EndNote

May be added as Personal communication in order to save the information.

I Zotero

May be added as E-mail, Instant Message or Interview, but all these will appear in your reference list, and have to be deleted manually from there.

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Last modified on: March 16th, 2023