Personal communication (Lecture notes, e-mails etc.)

In-text citations

Specify the name of the person(s) involved, why the source is relevant, and give as precise a date as possible. Get the approval to cite the person(s) involved and make sure you quote correctly.

Ex.: My teacher’s advice was: “don’t be afraid of making mistakes, that’s how we learn”. (D, Smith, personal communication, december 2016).

In the reference list

These sources are not included in the reference list.

I EndNote

Can be added as Personal communication in order to save the information.

I Zotero

Add as E-mail or Letter, and modify to suit requirements.

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Last modified on: October 11th, 2021